Vol. 1, Issue 2, July 2011

Jul 232011
 
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Lan Cheng

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz, Germany
Journal of Unsolved Questions, 1, 2, Open Questions, 12-15, 2011 (Received July 18th  2011, accepted July 20th 2011, published July 23rd 2011)

Go (’weiqi’ in Chinese and ’igo’ in Japanese) [1] is an ancient board game originating from China that has been widely played in east Asia. Nowadays Go is being more and more popular throughout the world. In contrast to many other strategic games including chess that have been con- quered by modern computers many years ago, Go remains a formidable challenge to artificial intelligence [2] due to the enormous branching factors of the game tree and, perhaps more importantly, the lack of proper evaluation criteria…

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Keywords: Go, branching factors, artifical intelligence

Jul 232011
 
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Wolter Seuntjens, Karolina Hansen

Dutch Academy of ’Pataphysics, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Friedrich Schiller University, Jena, Germany
Journal of Unsolved Questions, 1, 2, Open Questions, 15-16, 2011 (Received July 19th  2011, accepted July 21st 2011, published July 23rd 2011)

Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to attribute mental states—beliefs, intents, desires, pretending, knowledge, etc.—to oneself and others, and to understand that others have beliefs, desires, and intentions that are different from one’s own[1]. There is controversy over the question whether animals other than humans have a ToM. The question is important when assessing the status of humans within the animal kingdom. The social tool of faked orgasm seems to be unique to human beings and thus it is a strong test for the demarcation of human versus animal…

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Keywords: Theory of Mind, deception, orgasm, bonobo

Jul 182011
 
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Leonie Anna Mueck and Johannes Heymer

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz, Germany
Eberhard Karls University, Tuebingen
Journal of Unsolved Questions, 1, 2, Open Questions, 10-12, 2011 (Received June 25th 2011, accepted July 14th 2011, published July 18th 2011)

“That for which nearly a year had been Vrosnky’s sole and exclusive desire , supplanting all his former desire: That for which Anna had been impossible, dreadful, but all the more betwiching dream of happiness, had come to pass. Pale, with trembling lower jaw, he stood over her, entreating her to be calm, himself not knowing how nor why. … `It’s all over?, she said. `I have nothing but you left. Remember that.?”[1]

Anna Karenina is one of the most prominent and at the same time most tragic adulterers in world literature. What begins as passionate but forbidden love between her and Alexey Vronsky leads to years of ostracism and finally reaches its climax in Anna Karenina’s suicide. In the above scene, where the sexual aspect  of their relationship cannot be overlooked, Anna Karenina already foretells her fate:  “It’s all over”.

The novel is a grand example of  how individuals are torn apart between the social imperative of monogamy and their intrinsic passions. Monogamy is indeed a puzzling social construct, since there seem to be two incompatible souls in us: Our wish for intimacy, consistency, and security on the one hand and our adventurous desires on the other. Some scientists interpret these two souls in a way that suggests that our own evolutionary biology is in conflict with norms and imperatives imposed on us by society and culture. […]

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Keywords: Epidemiology, History of Sexuality

Jul 092011
 
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Francesco Calcavecchia, Francesco Pederiva, and Thomas D. Kuehne

Institute of Physical Chemistry, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz, Germany
Dipartimento di Fisica, University of Trento, via Sommerive 14, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Livermore, California 94550, USA
Center for Computational Sciences, Johannes Gutenberg-University Mainz, Staudinger Weg 9, D-55128 Mainz, Germany

Journal of Unsolved Questions, 1, 2, Articles 13-18, 2011 (Received June 11th, accepted June 30th, published online July 9th 2011)

We present the Fermionic Shadow Wave Function in the context of variational quantum Monte Carlo for disordered systems. Using the example of liquid 3He it is demonstrated that this allows for very accurate calculations, but due to its sign problem only for small systems. For this reason two novel methods are proposed that in principle solve the associated sign problem, but do not allow for realistic simulations yet.

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Keywords: Fermionic Shadow Wave Function, Variational Monte Carlo

May 082011
 
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U.B. Lushchyk, V.V. Novytskyy

Clinical Hospital “Feofaniya” and Institutes for Mathematics of NAS of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine

Journal of Unsolved Questions, 1, 2, Open Questions, 8-9, 2011 (Received March 29th 2011, published online May 8th 2011)

The cardiovascular system (CVS) is an essential component in  human health, as the background level of functioning of nearly all organs and systems depends on the blood supply level. It is of a very complicated dynamic mechanism by a type of the closed system of connecting vessels with variable parameters in all its structural segments – heart, vascular walls, as well as intravascular fluid – blood.

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Keywords: cardiovascular system, cardiovascular diseases, hydrohemodynamic laws, Non-Newton liquid